6 dicas de segurança para o MySQL/MariaDB

O MySQL é, muito provavelmente, o sistema de gestão de base de dados (SGBD) mais usado em todo o mundo, estando disponível em várias versões e para diferentes sistemas operativos. Por outro lado o MariaDB (fork do MySQL) tem tido um crescimento fantástico.

Hoje deixamos 6 dicas de segurança para quem usa o MySQL ou o MariaDB.

Por omissão, depois de instalar o MySQL/MariaDB, a segurança dos serviços não é totalmente garantida. Nesse sentido é preciso realizar alguns ajustes importantes. Aqui ficam as nossas dicas para hoje:

Dica 1 – “Instalação” segura do MySQL

Depois de instalar o MySQL/MariaDB devem executar o script mysql_secure_installation para:

  • Definir uma password para o utilizador root
  • Remover bases de dados de testes
  • Remover utilizadores anónimos
  • Não permitir o acesso remoto ao gestor de base de dados
  • etc.

Durante a configuração, devem seguir os seguintes passos:

  • Enter current password for root (enter for none): # DAR ENTER #
  • Set root password? [Y/n] # DAR ENTER #
  • New password: # Redefinir Password #
  • Re-enter new password: # Redefinir Password #
  • Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y
  • Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y
  • Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y
  • Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y

Dica 2 – Permitir apenas o acesso local

Se não usar o script anterior para bloquear o acesso remoto à base de dados, pode fazê-lo através do ficheiro /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf adicionando, a seguir à secção mysql, o comando:

bind-address = 127.0.0.1

Nota: Caso pretenda definir esta alteração no MySQL, deve ser no ficheiro /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysql.cnf.

Dica 3 – Mudar o porto de ligação ao MySQL/MariaDB

Por omissão, o porto de ligação ao MySQL/MariaDB é o conhecido 3306. Para mudarem, por exemplo, para 5555, devem ir ao ficheiro /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf e mudar a variável port.

Dica 4 – Apagar comandos MySQL

Todos os comandos executados na shell do MySQL/MariaDB são guardados no ficheiro ~/.mysql_history.

Para apagar toda a informação desse ficheiro devem usar o comando:

cat /dev/null > ~/.mysql_history

Dica 5 – Mude frequentemente a password de acesso ao MySQL/MariaDB

Para mudar com frequência a password de acesso ao gestor de base de dados basta que use os seguintes comandos:

MariaDB [(none)]> USE mysql;
MariaDB [(none)]> UPDATE user SET password=PASSWORD('YourPasswordHere') WHERE User='root' AND Host = 'localhost';
MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Top 10 editores de texto

Hoje em dia qualquer editor de texto oferece um vasto conjunto de funcionalidades. Este tipo de ferramenta pode ser usada nas mais diversas tarefas que vão desde a programação, registo de texto simples, ajuda na configuração de serviços, listagem de ações, etc.

Hoje apresentamos um TOP 10 dos melhores editores de texto em 2017. Veja se falta algum.

1# Notepad++

O Notepad++ é um poderosíssimo editor de texto que combina uma série de funcionalidades que facilitam o trabalho de qualquer pessoa que trabalhe com texto digital. É bastante leve, reconhece a sintaxe de aproximadamente 40 linguagens de programação (C, C++, HTML, XML, ASP, JAVA, SQL, Perl, Python, HTML5, CSS entre outras com sistema syntax highlight, excelente para programadores).

2# Visual Studio Code

O contrário da plataforma Visual Studio, o Visual Studio Code é simplesmente um editor de texto que oferece um conjunto vasto de funcionalidades.

Este editor é multi-plataforma, gratuito e é direcionado para programadores que procuram um simples IDE , leve mas ao mesmo tempo completo.

3# Atom

O Atom, o popular editor de código do Github, é um dos preferidos dos programadores devido às funcionalidades que oferece. O Atom permite que os programadores acedam à semântica de várias linguagens de programação, à integração com o Git e (claro) com o próprio Github, a temas completamente personalizáveis e o acesso a uma comunidade que está a desenvolver e a criar módulos e extensões para o Atom.

4# Sublime Text

Sublime Text é um editor de texto e código-fonte multiplataforma, escrito em linguagem C++, que foi inicialmente pensado para ser uma extensão do vim. Este editor oferece recursos extraordinários e um desempenho simplesmente surpreendente.

5# Brackets

Considerado como o substituto do gedit (editor de texto com interface gráfica), o Brackets é um editor de texto código, muito versátil, leve e pode ser facilmente artilhado através das mais diversas extensões disponíveis.

6# Bluefish

Bluefish é um poderoso editor de texto, recomendado para programadores e webdesigners. Como muitas opções disponíveis, permite desenvolvimento em HTML, XHTML, CSS, XML, XML, PHP, C, Javascript, Java, SQL, Perl, JSP, Python, entre outros.

O Bluefish foi criado por Chris Mazuc e Olivier Sessink em 1997, com o objetivo de facilitar o desenvolvimento web a profissionais tivessem como sistema operativo o Linux.

7# Light Table

Light Table é considerado um editor de texto altamente moderno e inovador. Este editor pode ser facilmente personalizado, podemos embeber gráficos e ver em tempo real o resultado de um determinado código. Vale a pena experimentar.

8# Vim

O Vim é um dos principais editores de texto do GNU/Linux. São fantásticas as suas capacidades e por isso é um dos eleitos pela maioria dos utilizadores. A interface não é muito amigável e no principio é difícil dominar o editor.

9# UltraEdit

Tal como o Sublime Text, o UltraEdit é também um editor muito completo em termos de funcionalidades. Este editor pode ser facilmente personalizado e até podemos configurar ligações FTP, SSH, Telnet para trabalhar em código que está do lado do servidor.

10# nano

Uma das ferramentas mais usadas em qualquer sistema GNU/Linux é sem dúvida o editor de texto. Ao nível da linha de comandos são várias as opções mas um dos mais populares é sem dúvida o nano.

E são estes alguns dos bons editores de texto que existem hoje no mercado. Os primeiros que apresentamos são os mais completos e por isso são também dos mais populares.

A Complete Guide To Switching From HTTP To HTTPS

HTTPS is a must for every website nowadays: Users are looking for the padlock when providing their details; Chrome and Firefox explicitly mark websites that provide forms on pages without HTTPS as being non-secure; it is an SEO ranking factor; and it has a serious impact on privacy in general. Additionally, there is now more than one option to get an HTTPS certificate for free, so switching to HTTPS is only a matter of will.

 

HTTPS is a must for every website nowadays: Users are looking for the padlock when providing their details; Chrome and Firefoxexplicitly mark websites that provide forms on pages without HTTPS as being non-secure; it is an SEO ranking factor; and it has a serious impact on privacy in general. Additionally, there is now more than one option to get an HTTPS certificate for free, so switching to HTTPS is only a matter of will.

Setting up HTTPS can be a bit intimidating for the inexperienced user — it takes many steps with different parties, it requires specific knowledge of encryption and server configuration, and it sounds complicated in general.

In this guide, I will explain the individual components and steps and will clearly cover the individual stages of the setup. Your experience should be easy, especially if your hosting provider also supplies HTTPS certificates — chances are you will be able to perform everything from your control panel quickly and easily.

I have included detailed instructions for owners of shared hosting plans on cPanel, administrators of Apache HTTP servers and of nginx on Linux and Unix, as well as Internet Information Server on Windows.

Let’s start with the basics.

FURTHER READING ON SMASHINGMAG: LINK

HTTP Vs. HTTPS Vs. HTTP/2 Vs. SSL Vs. TLS: What’s What? Link

A lot of acronyms are used to describe the processes of communication between a client and a server. These are often mixed up by people who are not familiar with the internals.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the basic communication protocol that both clients and servers must implement in order to be able to communicate. It covers things such as requests and responses, sessions, caching, authentication and more. Work on the protocol, as well as on the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), started in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee and his team at CERN. The first official version of the protocol (HTTP 1.0) was released in 1996, shortly followed by the currently widely adopted version (HTTP 1.1) in 1997.

The protocol transfers information between the browser and the server in clear text, allowing the network, through which the information passes, to see the information transmitted. This is a security concern, so HTTP Secure (HTTPS) was introduced, allowing the client and the server to first establish an encrypted communication channel, and then pass the clear text HTTP messages through it, effectively protecting them from eavesdropping.

The encrypted channel is created using the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, previously called Secure Socket Layer (SSL). The terms SSL and TLS are often used interchangeably, with SSL 3.0 being replaced by TLS 1.0. SSL was a Netscape-developed protocol, while TLS is an IETF standard. At the time of writing, all versions of SSL (1.0, 2.0, 3.0) are deprecated due to various security problems and will produce warnings in current browsers, and the TLS versions (1.0, 1.1, 1.2) are in use, with 1.3 currently a draft.

So, sometime around 1996 and 1997, we got the current stable version of the Internet (HTTP 1.1, with or without SSL and TLS), which still powers the majority of websites today. Previously, HTTP was used for non-sensitive traffic (for example, reading the news), and HTTPS was used for sensitive traffic (for example, authentication and e-commerce); however, increased focus on privacy means that web browsers such as Google Chrome now mark HTTP websites as “not private” and will introduce warnings for HTTP in future.

The next upgrade of the HTTP protocol — HTTP/2 — which is being adopted by a growing number of websites, adds new features (compression, multiplexing, prioritization) in order to reduce latency and increase performance and security.

In HTTP version 1.1, the secure connection is optional (you may have HTTP and/or HTTPS independent of each other), while in HTTP/2 it is practically mandatory — even though the standard defines HTTP/2 with or without TLS, most browser vendors have stated that they will only implement support for HTTP/2 over TLS.

What Does HTTPS Provide? Link

Why bother with HTTPS in the first place? It is used for three main reasons:

  • Confidentiality
    This protects the communication between two parties from others within a public medium such as the Internet. For example, without HTTPS, someone running a Wi-Fi access point could see private information such as credit cards when someone using the access point purchases something online.
  • Integrity
    This makes sure information reaches its destined party in full and unaltered. For example, our Wi-Fi friend could add extra advertisements to our website, reduce the quality of our images to save bandwidth or change the content of articles we read. HTTPS ensures that the website can’t be modified.
  • Authentication
    This ensures that the website is actually what it claims to be. For example, that same person running the Wi-Fi access point could send browsers to a fake website. HTTPS ensures that a website that says it’s example.com is actually example.com. Some certificates even check the legal identity behind that website, so that you know yourbank.com is YourBank, Inc.

Cryptography In A Nutshell Link

Confidentiality, integrity and authentication aren’t HTTPS-specific: They’re the core concepts of cryptography. Let’s look a little more closely at them.

CONFIDENTIALITY LINK

Confidentiality is privacy — that is, it protects information from being read by an unauthorized third party. The process usually involves turning a readable (i.e. audible and visible) form of the information, called plaintext, into a scrambled, unreadable version, called ciphertext. This process is called encryption. The reverse process — turning the unreadable ciphertext back into readable plaintext — is called decryption. There are many methods — cipher functions (or algorithms) — to encrypt and decrypt information.

In order for two parties to be able to communicate, they should agree on two things:

  1. which algorithm (cipher function) they will use in their communication;
  2. which parameters, password or rules (i.e. secret) will be used with the method selected.

There are two main types of encryption methods:

  • symmetric
    Both parties share a common secret key.
  • asymmetric
    One of the parties has a pair of a secret and a public key, the foundation of public key infrastructure (PKI).

The symmetric class of methods relies on both parties having a shared secret, which the sender uses to encrypt the information, which in turn the receiver decrypts using the same method and key (see the figure below). The problem with these methods is how both parties will negotiate (i.e. exchange) the secret without physically meeting each other — they need to have a secure communication channel of some sort.

Symmetric encryption
Symmetric encryption (View large version)

The asymmetric methods come to solve this kind of problem — they are based on the notion of public and private keys. The plaintext is encrypted using one of the keys and can only be decrypted using the other complementary key.

So, how does it work? Let’s assume we have two parties who are willing to communicate with each other securely — Alice and Bob (these are always the names of the fictional characters in every tutorial, security manual and the like, so we’ll honor the tradition here as well). Both of them have a pair of keys: a private key and a public one. Private keys are known only to their respective owner; public keys are available to anyone.

If Alice wants to send a message to Bob, she would obtain his public key, encrypt the plaintext and send him the ciphertext. He would then use his own private key to decrypt it.

If Bob would like to send a reply to Alice, he would obtain her public key, encrypt the plaintext and send her the ciphertext. She would then use her own private key to decrypt it.

Asymmetric encryption
Asymmetric encryption (View large version)

When do we use symmetric and when do we use asymmetric encryption? Asymmetric encryption is used to exchange the secret between the client and the server. In real life, we usually do not need two-way asymmetric communication — it is sufficient if one of the parties (we’ll just call it a server, for the sake of simplicity) has the set of keys, so it can receive an encrypted message. It really protects the security of information in only one direction — from the client to the server, because the information encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted using the private key; hence, only the server can decrypt it. The other direction is not protected — information encrypted with the server’s private key can be decrypted with its public key by anyone. The other party (we’ll similarly call it a client) begins the communication by encrypting a randomly generated session secret with the server’s public key, then sends the ciphertext back to the server, which, in turn, decrypts it using its own private key, now having the secret.

Symmetric encryption is then used to protect the actual data in transit, since it’s much faster than asymmetric encryption. The two parties (the client and the server), with the previously exchanged secret, are the only ones able to encrypt and decrypt the information.

That’s why the first asymmetric part of the handshake is also known (and referred to) as key exchange and why the actual encrypted communication uses algorithms known (and referred to) as cipher methods.

INTEGRITY LINK

Another concern, solved with HTTPS, is data integrity: (1) whether the entire information arrived successfully, and (2) whether it was modified by someone in transit. In order to ensure the information is transmitted successfully, message digest algorithms are used. Computing message authentication codes (MACs) for each message exchanged are a cryptographic hashing process. For example, obtaining a MAC (sometimes called a tag) uses a method that ensures that it is practically impossible (the term commonly used is infeasible) to:

  • change the message without affecting the tag,
  • generate the same tag from two different messages,
  • reverse the process and obtain the original message from the tag.

AUTHENTICATION LINK

What about authentication? The problem with the real-life application of the public key infrastructure is that both parties have no way of knowing who the other party really is — they are physically separate. In order to prove the identity of the other party, a mutually trusted third party — a certificate authority (CA) — is involved. A CA issues a certificate, stating that the domain name example.com (a unique identifier), is associated with the public key XXX. In some cases (with EV and OV certificates — see below), the CA will also check that a particular company controls that domain. This information is guaranteed by (i.e. certified by) the certificate authority X, and this guarantee is valid no earlier than (i.e. begins on) date Y and no later than (i.e. expires on) date Z. All of this information goes into a single document, called an HTTPS certificate. To present an easily understandable analogy, it is like a country government (a third party trusted by all) issuing an ID or a passport (a certificate) to a person — every party that trusts the government would also accept the identity of the ID holder (assuming the ID is not fake, of course, but that’s outside the scope of this example).

Certification authorities (CAs) are organizations trusted to sign certificates. Operating systems, such as Windows, macOS, iOS and Android, as well as the Firefox browser, have a list of trusted certificates.

You can check which CAs are trusted by your browser:

  • Firefox
    “Options” → “Advanced” → “Certificates” → “View Certificates” → “Authorities”
  • Windows
    “Control Panel” → “Internet Options” → “Content” — “Certificates” → “Trusted Root Certification Authorities / Intermediate Certification Authorities”
  • Mac
    “Applications” → “Utilities” → “Keychain Access.” Under “Category,” pick Certificates”

All certificates are then checked and trusted — by the operating system or browser if directly trusted or by a trusted entity if verified. This mechanism of transitive trust is known as a chain of trust:

Chain of trust
Chain of trust (View large version)

You can add other unlisted CAs, which is useful when working with self-signed certificates (which we’ll discuss later).

In most common situations, only the server needs to be known to the client — for example, an e-commerce website to its customers — so, only the website needs a certificate. In other situations, such as e-government systems, both the server and the client, requesting a service, should have their identity proven. This means that both parties should be using certificates to authenticate to the other party. This setup is also outside the scope of this article.

Types Of HTTPS Certificates Link

There are several types of HTTPS certificates. They can be categorized according to the following criteria.

1. IDENTITY VALIDATION LINK

  1. Domain validated (DV)
    The most common type of certificate, a DV certificate verifies that the domain matches a particular public key. The browser establishes a secure connection with the server and displays the closed padlock sign. Clicking the sign will show “This website does not supply ownership information.” There are no special requirements other than having a domain — a DV certificate simply ensures that this is the correct public key for that domain. The browser does not show a legal entity. DV certificates are often cheap (10 USD per year) or free — see the sections on Let’s Encrypt and Cloudflare below.
  2. Extended validation (EV)
    EV certificates verify the legal organization behind a website. This is the most trustworthy type of certificate, which is obtained after a CA checks the legal entity that controls the domain. The legal entity is checked with a combination of:

    • control of the domain (such as a DV certificate);
    • government business records, to make sure the company is registered and active;
    • independent business directories, such as Dunn and Bradstreet, Salesforce’s connect.data.com, Yellow Pages, etc.;
    • a verification phone call;
    • inspection of all domain names in the certificate (wildcards are explicitly forbidden for EV certificates).

    As well as the closed padlock sign, EV HTTPS certificates display the name of the validated legal entity — typically a registered company — before the URL. Some devices, such as iOS Safari, will only show the validated legal entity, ignoring the URL completely. Clicking the sign will show details about the organization, such as the name and street address. The cost is between 150 and 300 USD per year.

  3. Organization validated (OV)
    Like EV, OV certificates verify the legal organization behind a website. However, unlike EV, OV HTTPS certificates do not display the verified legal name in the UI. As a result, OV certificates are less popular, because they have high validation requirements, without the benefits of these being shown to users. Prices are in the 40 to 100 USD per year range.

2. NUMBER OF DOMAINS COVERED LINK

Once upon a time, HTTPS certificates generally contained a single domain in the CN field. Later, the “subject alternative name” (SAN) field was added to allow additional domains to be covered by a single certificate. These days, all HTTPS certificates are created equal: Even a single-domain certificate will have a SAN for that single domain (and a second SAN for the www version of that domain). However, many certificate vendors still sell single- and multi-domain HTTPS certificates for historical reasons.

  1. Single domain
    This is the most common type of certificate, valid for the domain names example.com and http://www.example.com.
  2. Multiple domains (UCC/SAN)
    This type of certificate, also known as Unified Communications Certificate (UCC) or Subject Alternative Names (SAN) certificate, can cover a list of domains (up to a certain limit). It is not limited to a single domain — you can mix different domains and subdomains. The price usually includes a set number of domains (three to five), with the option to include more (up to the limit) for an additional fee. Using it with related websites is advised, because the client inspecting the certificate of any of the websites will see the main domain, as well as all additional ones.
  3. Wildcard
    This type of certificate covers the main domain as well as an unlimited number of subdomains (*.example.com) — for example, example.com, http://www.example.com, mail.example.com, ftp.example.com, etc. The limitation is that it covers only subdomains of the main domain.

The variety of HTTPS certificates available is summarized in the table below:

CERTIFICATE TYPE DOMAIN VALIDATED (DV) ORGANIZATION VALIDATED (OV)
HTTPS HTTPS
Verified legal owner
Single domain example.com, http://www.example.com
Multiple domains example.com, http://www.example.com, mail.example.com, example.net, example.org, etc.
predefined list, up to a certain limit (usually 100)
Wildcard *.example.com
matches any subdomain
N/A — all names must be included explicitly in the certificate and inspected by the CA.

The Configuration Link

To recap, four components of HTTPS require encryption:

  1. The initial key exchange
    This uses asymmetric (private and public key) algorithms.
  2. The identity certification (the HTTPS certificate, issued by a certification authority)
    This uses asymmetric (private and public key) algorithms.
  3. The actual message encryption
    This uses symmetric (pre-shared secret) algorithms.
  4. The message digesting
    This uses cryptographic hashing algorithms.

Each of these components has a set of used algorithms (some of them deprecated already) that use different key sizes. Part of the handshake involves the client and the server agreeing on which combination of methods they will use — select one out of about a dozen public key (key exchange) algorithms, one out of about a dozen symmetric key (cipher) algorithms and one out of three (two deprecated) message-digesting (hashing) algorithms, which gives us hundreds of combinations.

For example, the setting ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 means that the key will be exchanged using the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (ECDHE) key exchange algorithm; the CA signed the certificate using the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) algorithm; the symmetric message encryption will use the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher, with a 256-bit key and GCM mode of operation; and message integrity will be verified using the SHA secure hashing algorithm, using 384-bit digests. (A comprehensive list of algorithm combinations is available.)

So, there are some configuration choices to be made.

CIPHER SUITES LINK

Deciding the cipher suites to use is a balance between compatibility and security:

  • Compatibility with older browsers needs the server to support older cipher suites.
  • However, many older cipher suites are no longer considered secure.

OpenSSL lists the supported combinations (see above) in order of cryptographic strength, with the most secure at the top and the weakest at the bottom. It is designed in this way because, during the initial handshake between the client and the server, the combination to be used is negotiated until a match is found that is supported by both parties. It makes sense to first try the most secure combinations and gradually resort to weaker security only if there is no other way.

Wikipedia has a comprehensive list of algorithms for all components of TLS and their support in different versions of SSL and TLS.

A very useful and highly recommended resource, advising on what cryptographic methods to enable on the server, is the Mozilla SSL Configuration Generator, which we’ll use later on with actual server configurations.

KEY TYPES LINK

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) certificates are faster and use less CPU than the RSA certificates, which is particularly important for mobile clients. However, some services, such as Amazon, CloudFront and Heroku, don’t yet, at the time of writing, support ECC certificates.

A 256-bit ECC key is considered sufficient.

Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) certificates are slower but compatible with a wider variety of older servers. RSA keys are larger, so a 2048-bit RSA key is considered minimal. RSA certificates of 4096 and above may hurt performance — they’re also likely to be signed by a 2048-bit intermediary, undermining much of the additional security!

You might have noticed the fluidity of the statements above and the lack of any numbers — it is because what is a heavy load on one server is not on another. The best way to determine the impact on performance is to monitor the load on your server, with your real website(s) and your real visitors. And even that will change over time.

Procedures Link

To obtain an HTTPS certificate, perform the following steps:

  1. Create a private and public key pair, and prepare a Certificate Signing Request (CSR), including information about the organization and the public key.
  2. Contact a certification authority and request an HTTPS certificate, based on the CSR.
  3. Obtain the signed HTTPS certificate and install it on your web server.

There exists a set of files, containing different components of the public key infrastructure (PKI): the private and public keys, the CSR and the signed HTTPS certificate. To make things even more complicated, different parties use different names (and file extensions) to identify one and the same thing.

To start, there are two popular formats for storing the information — DER and PEM. The first one (DER) is binary, and the second (PEM) is a base64-encoded (text) DER file. By default, Windows uses the DER format directly, and the open-source world (Linux and UNIX) uses the PEM-format. There are tools (OpenSSL) to convert between one and the other.

The files we’ll be using as examples in the process are the following:

  • example.com.key
    This PEM-formatted file contains the private key. The extension .key is not a standard, so some might use it and others might not. It is to be protected and accessible only by the system super-user.
  • example.com.pub
    This PEM-formatted file contains the public key. You do not actually need this file (and it’s never explicitly present), because it can be generated from the private key. It is only included here for illustration purposes.
  • example.com.csr
    This is a certificate signing request. A PEM-formatted file containing organizational information, as well as the server’s public key, should be sent to the certification authority issuing the HTTPS certificate.
  • example.com.crt
    This HTTPS certificate is signed by the certification authority. It is a PEM-formatted file, including the server’s public key, organizational information, the CA signature, validity and expiry dates, etc. The extension .crt is not a standard; other common extensions include .cert and .cer.

File names (and extensions) are not standard; they can be anything you like. I have chosen this naming convention because I think it is illustrative and makes more obvious which component has what function. You can use whatever naming convention makes sense to you, as long as you refer to the appropriate key-certificate files in the commands and server configuration files throughout the process.

The private key is a randomly generated string of a certain length (we’ll use 2048-bit), which looks like the following:

-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

Keep the private key private! This means protect it by very restricted permissions (600), and do not disclose it to anyone.

Its counterpart — the public key — looks like this:

-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
MIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAm+036O2PlUQbKbSSs2ik
6O6TYy6+Zsas5oAk3GioGLl1RW9Ni8kagqdnD69Et29m1vl5OIPsBoW3OWb1aBW5
e3J0x9prXI1W/fpvuP9NmrHBUN4ES17VliRpfVH3aHfPC8rKpv3GvHYOcfOmMN+H
fBZlUeKJKs6c5WmSVdnZB0R4UAWuQ30aHEBVqtrhgHqYDBokVe0/H4wmwZEIQTIN
WniCOFR5UphJf5nP8ljGbmPxNTnfb/iHS/chjcjF7TGMG36e7EBoQijZEUQs5IBC
eVefOnFLK5jLx+BC//X+FNzByDilTt+l28I/3ZN1ujhak73YFbWjjLR2tjtp+LQg
NQIDAQAB
-----END PUBLIC KEY-----

The Certificate Signing Request (CSR) looks like the following:

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
MIICzjCCAbYCAQAwgYgxFDASBgNVBAMMC2V4YW1wbGUuY29tMQswCQYDVQQLDAJJ
VDEPMA0GA1UECAwGTG9uZG9uMRIwEAYDVQQKDAlBQ01FIEluYy4xIDAeBgkqhkiG
9w0BCQEWEWFkbWluQGV4YW1wbGUuY29tMQswCQYDVQQGEwJHQjEPMA0GA1UEBwwG
TG9uZG9uMIIBIjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAm+036O2PlUQb
KbSSs2ik6O6TYy6+Zsas5oAk3GioGLl1RW9Ni8kagqdnD69Et29m1vl5OIPsBoW3
OWb1aBW5e3J0x9prXI1W/fpvuP9NmrHBUN4ES17VliRpfVH3aHfPC8rKpv3GvHYO
cfOmMN+HfBZlUeKJKs6c5WmSVdnZB0R4UAWuQ30aHEBVqtrhgHqYDBokVe0/H4wm
wZEIQTINWniCOFR5UphJf5nP8ljGbmPxNTnfb/iHS/chjcjF7TGMG36e7EBoQijZ
EUQs5IBCeVefOnFLK5jLx+BC//X+FNzByDilTt+l28I/3ZN1ujhak73YFbWjjLR2
tjtp+LQgNQIDAQABoAAwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAGIQVhXfuWdINNfceNPm
CkAGv4yzpx88L34bhO1Dw4PYWnoS2f7ItuQA5zNk9EJhjkwK8gYspK7mPkvHDbFa
Um7lPSWsm3gjd3pU7dIaHxQ+0AW9lOw5ukiBlO4t3qgt+jTVZ3EhMbR0jDSyjTrY
kTgfuqQrGOQSmLb5XviEtCcN0rseWib3fKIl8DM69JiA2AALxyk7DCkS1BqLNChT
pnbgvtlUhc4yFXNCtwPGskXIvLsCn2LRy+qdsPM776kDLgD36hK0Wu14Lpsoa/p+
ZRuwKqTjdaV23o2aUMULyCRuITlghEEkRdJsaXadHXtNd5I5vDJOAAt46PIXcyEZ
aQY=
-----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----

This particular CSR contains the server’s public key and details about the organization ACME Inc., based in London, UK, and which owns the domain name example.com.

Finally, the signed HTTPS certificate looks like the following:

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

All parts are connected and should match each other. The final certificate was generated for illustration purposes only — it is the so-called self-signed certificate, because it was not signed by a recognized certification authority.

The process will be illustrated with actual steps for cPanel, Linux, FreeBSD and Windows. This is a universal process, valid for all kinds of certificates. If you are interested in getting a free DV certificate, there are other procedures to follow in the sections on Let’s Encrypt and Cloudflare.

Step 1: Create A Private Key And A Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Link

In the following examples, we’ll use 2048-bit RSA certificates, for their wide compatibility. If your server provider supports it (for example, if you don’t use Heroku or AWS), you might prefer to use ECC instead.

CPANEL LINK

  1. Log into your host’s cPanel.
  2. Scroll down to the “Security” section and click “SSL/TLS.”
    cPanel Security section
    cPanel “Security” section (View large version)
  3. You are now in the “SSL/TLS Manager” home. Click “Private Keys (KEY)” to create a new private key.
    cPanel SSL/TLS Manager
    cPanel “SSL/TLS Manager (View large version)
  4. You will be redirected to a page to “Generate, Paste or Upload a new “Private
    Key.” Select “2048-bit” in the “Key Size” dropdown, and click “Generate.”

    cPanel cPanel Private Key management
    cPanel “Private Key” management (View large version)
  5. The new private key will be generated, and you will get a confirmation screen:
    cPanel Private key confirmation
    cPanel private key confirmation (View large version)
  6. If you go back to the “Private Keys” home, you will see your new key listed:
    cPanel Private keys with the new key generated
    cPanel “Private Keys” with the new key generated (View large version)
  7. Go back to the “SSL/TLS Manager” home. Click “Certificate Signing Requests (CSR)” to create a new certificate request.
    cPanel SSL/TLS Manager
    cPanel “SSL/TLS Manager” (View large version)
  8. You will now be presented with the “Generate Service Request” form. Select the previously created private key and fill in the fields. Answer all of the questions correctly (they will be public in your signed certificate!), paying special attention to the “Domains” section, which should exactly match the domain name for which you are requesting the HTTPS certificate. Include the top-level domain only (example.com); the CA will usually add the wwwsubdomain as well (i.e. http://www.example.com). When finished, click the “Generate” button.
    cPanel create new Certificate Signing Request form
    cPanel “Create New Certificate Signing Request” form (View large version)
  9. The new CSR will be generated, and you will get a confirmation screen:
    cPanel CSR confirmation
    cPanel CSR confirmation (View large version)
  10. If you go back to the “Certificate Signing Request” home, you will see your new CSR listed:
    cPanel Certificate Signing Request with the new CSR generated
    cPanel “Certificate Signing Request” with the new CSR generated (View large version)

LINUX, FREEBSD LINK

Make sure OpenSSL is installed. You can check by using:

openssl version

If it’s not already present, open the command line and install it for your platform:

  • Debian, Ubuntu and clones
    sudo apt-get install openssl
  • Red Hat, CentOS and clones
    sudo yum install openssl
  • FreeBSD
    make -C /usr/ports/security/openssl install clean

Then, generate a private key and a CSR with a single command:

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout example.com.key -out example.com.csr

The private key will be generated, and you will be asked some information for the CSR:

Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
........................+++
................................................................+++
writing new private key to 'example.com.key'
-----
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ‘.', the field will be left blank.

Answer all questions correctly (they will be public in your signed certificate!), paying special attention to the “Common Name” section (for example, server FQDN or YOUR name), which should exactly match the domain name for which you are requesting the HTTPS certificate. Include the top-level domain only (example.com), the CA will usually add the www subdomain as well (i.e. http://www.example.com):

Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:GB
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:London
Locality Name (eg, city) []:London
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:ACME Inc.
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:example.com
Email Address []:admin@example.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

INTERNET INFORMATION SERVER (IIS) ON WINDOWS LINK

  1. Open “Start” → “Administrative Tools” → “Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.” Click the server name. Double-click “Server Certificates” in the middle column:
    Open Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. Double-click Server Certificates
    Open “Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.” Double-click “Server Certificates.” (View large version)
  2. Click “Create Certificate Request” in the right column.
    Click Create Certificate Request in the right column
    Click “Create Certificate Request” in the right column. (View large version)
  3. Enter your organization’s details, paying special attention to “Common
    Name,” which should match your domain name. Click “Next.”

    Enter your organization's details
    Enter your organization’s details. (View large version)
  4. Leave the default “Cryptographic Service Provider.” Set the “Bit length” to 2048. Click “Next.”
    Set the Bit length to 2048
    Set the “Bit length” to 2048. (View large version)
  5. Browse for a place to save the generated CSR and click “Finish.”
    Browse for a place to save the generated CSR and click Finish
    Browse for a place to save the generated CSR and click ‘Finish’. (View large version)

Step 2: Obtaining The HTTPS Certificate Link

In order to get your website certificate, first purchase a HTTPS certificate credit of a chosen type (DV, OV, EV, single site, multisite, wildcard — see above) from an HTTPS certificate provider. Once the process is complete, you will have to provide the certificate signing request, which will spend the purchased credit for your chosen domain. You’ll be asked to provide (i.e. to paste in a field or to upload) the whole CSR text, including the -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- and -----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST----- lines. If you would like to have an EV or OV certificate, you’ll need to provide the legal entity for which you’re requesting the certificate — you might also be asked to provide additional documents to confirm that you represent this company. The certificate registrar will then verify your request (and any supporting documents) and issue the signed HTTPS certificate.

GETTING AN HTTPS CERTIFICATE LINK

Your hosting provider or HTTPS registrar might have a different product and registration procedure, but the general logic should be similar.

  1. Find an HTTPS certificate vendor.
  2. Select a type of certificate (DV, OV, EV, single site, multisite, wildcard), and click “Add to cart.” Specify your preferred payment method and complete the payment.
  3. Activate the new HTTPS certificate for your domain. You can either paste or upload the certificate signing request. The system will extract the certificate details from the CSR.
  4. You will be asked to select a method of “Domain Control Validation” — whether by email, uploading an HTML file (HTTP-based) or adding a TXTrecord to your domain zone file (DNS-based). Follow the instructions for your DCV method of choice to validate.
  5. Wait several minutes until the validation is performed and the HTTPS certificate is issued. Download the signed HTTPS certificate.

SELF-SIGNED CERTIFICATES LINK

It is also possible to sign a certificate yourself, rather than have a certificate authority do it. This is good for testing purposes because it will be cryptographically as good as any other certificate, but it will not be trusted by browsers, which will fire a security warning — you can claim you are anything you want, but it wouldn’t be verified by a trusted third party. If the user trusts the website, they could add an exception in their browser, which would store the certificate and trust it for future visits.

The example certificate above is a self-signed one — you can use it for the domain example.com, and it will work within its validity period.

You can create a self-signed certificate on any platform that has OpenSSL available:

openssl x509 -signkey example.com.key -in example.com.csr -req -days 365 -out example.com.crt

Once the certificate is available, you will have to install it on your server. If you are using hosting and HTTPS registration services from the same provider (many hosting providers also sell HTTPS certificates), there might be an automated procedure to install and enable your newly obtained HTTPS certificate for the website. If you are hosting your website elsewhere, you will need to download the certificate and configure your server to use it.

Step 3: Installing The HTTPS Certificate For Your Website Link

CPANEL LINK

  1. Go back to the “SSL/TLS Manager” home. Click “Certificates (CRT)” to import the new certificate.
    cPanel SSL/TLS Manager
    cPanel “SSL/TLS Manager” (View large version)
  2. You will be redirected to a page to “Paste, Upload or Generate” a new “Certificate.” Paste the contents of the certificate file received from the HTTPS registrar or upload it using the “Browse” button.
    cPanel Import a new SSL certificate
    cPanel “Import” a new HTTPS certificate (View large version)
  3. When you paste the contents of the HTTPS certificate, it will be parsed, and plain text values will be presented to you for confirmation. Review the contents and click the “Save Certificate” button.
    cPanel Review and confirm SSL certificate
    cPanel “Review” and confirm HTTPS certificate (View large version)
  4. The new HTTPS certificate will be saved, and you will get a confirmation screen:
    cPanel SSL certificate confirmation
    cPanel HTTPS certificate confirmation (View large version)
  5. If you go back to the “Certificates (CRT)” home, you will see your new HTTPS certificate listed:
    cPanel Certificates with the new SSL certificate listed
    cPanel “Certificates” with the new HTTPS certificate listed (View large version)
  6. Go back to the “SSL/TLS Manager” home. Click “Install and Manage SSL for your website (HTTPS)” to assign the new certificate to your existing website.
    cPanel SSL/TLS Manager
    cPanel “SSL/TLS Manager” (View large version)
  7. You will be presented with the “Install an SSL Website” form. Click the “Browse Certificates” button and select your HTTPS certificate. Select your website domain from the dropdown list (if it’s not automatically selected), and verify that the fields for “Certificate” and “Private Key” are populated.
    cPanel Install an SSL Website
    cPanel “Install an SSL Website” (View large version)

Test to see that you can access your website at the address https://www.example.com. If all works OK, you will most probably want to permanently redirect your HTTP traffic to HTTPS. To do so, you’ll have to include several lines of code to an .htaccess file (if you’re using an Apache web server) in your website’s root folder:

RewriteEngine On

RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]

If the .htaccess file already exists, then paste the RewriteCond and RewriteRulelines only, right after the existing RewriteEngine On directive.

LINUX, FREEBSD LINK

Place the generated private key (example.com.key), Certificate Signing Request (example.com.csr) and the valid HTTPS certificate (example.com.crt) in the appropriate locations:

  • Debian, Ubuntu and clones, FreeBSD
    cp example.com.crt /etc/ssl/certs/
    cp example.com.key /etc/ssl/private/
    cp example.com.csr /etc/ssl/private/
  • Red Hat, CentOS and clones
    cp example.com.crt /etc/pki/tls/certs/
    cp example.com.key /etc/pki/tls/private/
    cp example.com.csr /etc/pki/tls/private/
    restorecon -RvF /etc/pki

The files should be owned by root and protected by a permission setting of 600.

  • Debian, Ubuntu and clones
    chown -R root. /etc/ssl/certs /etc/ssl/private
    chmod -R 0600 /etc/ssl/certs /etc/ssl/private
  • Red Hat, CentOS and clones
    chown -R root. /etc/pki/tls/certs /etc/pki/tls/private
    chmod -R 0600 /etc/pki/tls/certs /etc/pki/tls/private
  • FreeBSD
    chown -R root:wheel /etc/ssl/certs /etc/ssl/private
    chmod -R 0600 /etc/ssl/certs /etc/ssl/private

APACHE LINK

To enable the HTTPS version of your website, you should:

  • make sure that mod_ssl is installed on your server,
  • upload the received HTTPS certificate (.crt) file to your server,
  • edit the Apache server configuration files.

Start by checking mod_ssl. Depending on your operating system, either one should work:

apache2 -M | grep ssl
or
httpd -M | grep ssl

If mod_ssl is installed, you should get either this…

ssl_module (shared)
Syntax OK

… or something similar.

If it’s not present or not enabled, then try this:

  • Debian, Ubuntu and clones
    sudo a2enmod ssl
    sudo service apache2 restart
  • Red Hat, CentOS and clones
    sudo yum install mod_ssl
    sudo service httpd restart
  • FreeBSD (select the SSL option)
    make -C /usr/ports/www/apache24 config install clean
    apachectl restart

Edit the Apache configuration file (httpd.conf):

  • Debian, Ubuntu
    /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
  • Red Hat, CentOS
    /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
  • FreeBSD
    /usr/local/etc/apache2x/httpd.conf

Listen			80
Listen			443

<VirtualHost *:80>
	ServerName example.com
	ServerAlias www.example.com
	Redirect 301 / https://www.example.com/
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:443>
	ServerName example.com
	Redirect 301 / https://www.example.com/
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:443>
	ServerName www.example.com
	...
	SSLEngine on
	SSLCertificateFile/path/to/signed_certificate_followed_by_intermediate_certs
	SSLCertificateKeyFile /path/to/private/key

	# Uncomment the following directive when using client certificate authentication
	#SSLCACertificateFile  /path/to/ca_certs_for_client_authentication

	# HSTS (mod_headers is required) (15768000 seconds = 6 months)
	Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000"
	...
</VirtualHost>

# intermediate configuration, tweak to your needs
SSLProtocol			all -SSLv3
SSLCipherSuite		ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!DSS
SSLHonorCipherOrder	on
SSLCompression			off
SSLSessionTickets		off

# OCSP Stapling, only in httpd 2.3.3 and later
SSLUseStapling					on
SSLStaplingResponderTimeout		5
SSLStaplingReturnResponderErrors	off
SSLStaplingCache				shmcb:/var/run/ocsp(128000)

This configuration was generated using the Mozilla SSL Configuration Generator, mentioned earlier. Check with it for an up-to-date configuration. Make sure to edit the paths to the certificate and private key. The configuration provided was generated using the intermediate setting — read the limitations and supported browser configurations for each setting to decide which one suits you best.

Some modifications to the generated code were made (marked in bold above) to handle redirects from HTTP to HTTPS, as well as non-www to the www domain (useful for SEO purposes).

NGINX LINK

Edit the nginx configuration file (nginx.conf):

  • Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, CentOS
    /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  • FreeBSD
    /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
server {
	listen 80 default_server;
	listen [::]:80 default_server;

	# Redirect all HTTP requests to HTTPS with a 301 Moved Permanently response.
	return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}

server {
	listen 443 ssl http2;
	listen [::]:443 ssl http2;

	# certs sent to the client in SERVER HELLO are concatenated in ssl_certificate
	ssl_certificate /path/to/signed_cert_plus_intermediates;
	ssl_certificate_key /path/to/private_key;
	ssl_session_timeout 1d;
	ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:50m;
	ssl_session_tickets off;

	# Diffie-Hellman parameter for DHE ciphersuites, recommended 2048 bits
	ssl_dhparam /path/to/dhparam.pem;

	# intermediate configuration. tweak to your needs.
	ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
	ssl_ciphers 'ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!DSS';
	ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

	# HSTS (ngx_http_headers_module is required) (15768000 seconds = 6 months)
	add_header Strict-Transport-Security max-age=15768000;

	# OCSP Stapling	---
	# fetch OCSP records from URL in ssl_certificate and cache them
	ssl_stapling on;
	ssl_stapling_verify on;

	## verify chain of trust of OCSP response using Root CA and Intermediate certs
	ssl_trusted_certificate /path/to/root_CA_cert_plus_intermediates;
	resolver <IP DNS resolver>;

	....
}

This configuration was generated using the Mozilla SSL Configuration Generator, mentioned earlier. Check with it for an up-to-date configuration. Make sure to edit the paths to the certificate and private key. The configuration provided was generated using the intermediate setting — read the limitations and supported browser configurations for each setting to decide which one suits you best.

The generator automatically generates code for handling redirects from HTTP to HTTPS, and it enables HTTP/2 out of the box!

INTERNET INFORMATION SERVER (IIS) ON WINDOWS LINK

  1. Open “Start” → “Administrative Tools” → “Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.” Click the server name. Double-click “Server Certificates” in the middle column:
    Open Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager. Double-click Server Certificates
    Open “Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager.” Double-click “Server Certificates.” (View large version)
  2. Click “Complete Certificate Request” in the right column.
    Click Complete Certificate Request in the right column
    Click “Complete Certificate Request” in the right column. (View large version)
  3. Select the signed certificate file (example.com.crt) that you obtained from the CA. Enter some name in the “Friendly name” field to be able to distinguish the certificate later. Place the new certificate in the “Personal” certificate store (IIS 8+). Click “OK.”
    Select the signed certificate file
    Select the signed certificate file. (View large version)
  4. If the process went OK, you should see the certificate listed under “Server
    Certificates.”

    You should see the certificate listed under Server Certificates
    You should see the certificate listed under “Server Certificates.” (View large version)
  5. Expand the server name. Under “Sites,” select the website to which you want to assign the HTTPS certificate. Click “Bindings” from the right column.
    Select the website and click Bindings
    Select the website and click “Bindings.” (View large version)
  6. In the “Site bindings” window, click the “Add” button.
    Click the Add button
    Click the “Add” button. (View large version)
  7. In the new window, select:
      • “Type”: “https”
      • “IP address”: “All Unassigned”
      • “Port”: “443”

    In the “SSL Certificate” field, select the installed HTTPS certificate by its friendly name. Click “OK.”

    Select https and select the installed SSL certificate
    Select “HTTPS,” and select the installed HTTPS certificate. (View large version)
  8. You should now have both HTTP and HTTPS installed for this website.
    You should now have both HTTP and HTTPS installed for this website
    You should now have both HTTP and HTTPS installed for this website. (View large version)

MIXED-CONTENT WARNINGS LINK

You might get a warning sign next to the address bar and a message such as “Connection is not secure! Parts of this page are not secure (such as images).” This does not mean that your installation is wrong; just make sure that all links to resources (images, style sheets, scripts, etc.), whether local or from remote servers, do not start with http://. All resources should be pointed to with paths relative to the root (/images/image.png, /styles/style.css, etc.) or relative to the current document (../images/image.png), or they should be full URLs beginning with https://, such as https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.1.0.min.js.

These tips should eliminate the mixed-content warnings, and your browser should display the closed padlock without an exclamation mark.

TESTING YOUR SERVER LINK

After you have configured your server and have the website up and running on HTTPS, I strongly recommend checking its security configuration using the Qualys SSL Server Test. This performs a scan of your website, including a comprehensive evaluation of its configuration, possible weaknesses and recommendations. Follow the advice there to further improve your server’s security configuration.

RENEWAL LINK

Your certificate is valid for a set period — typically, a year. Don’t wait to renew it at the last moment — your registrar will start sending you emails as the renewal date approaches. Do issue a new certificate as soon as you get your first reminder. The procedure is pretty much the same: Create a new certificate signing request, get a new HTTPS certificate, and install it on your server. The certificate’s validity will start running at the time of signing, while the expiration will be set one year after your current certificate expires. Thus, there will be a time when both your old and new certificates will be valid, and then a full new year after the expiration of the old certificate. During the overlap, you will be able to make sure that the new certificate is working OK, before the old one expires, allowing for uninterrupted service of your website.

REVOCATION LINK

If your server is compromised or if you think someone might have access to your private key, you should immediately revoke your current HTTPS certificate. Different registrars have different procedures, but it generally boils down to marking the compromised certificate as inactive in a special database of your registrar, and then issuing a new HTTPS certificate. Of course, revoke the current certificate as soon as possible, so that nobody can impersonate you, and get the new certificate only after you have investigated and fixed the cause of the security breach. Please ask your registrar for assistance.

Let’s Encrypt Link

To quote the Let’s Encrypt website:

Let’s Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority (CA), run for the public’s benefit. Let’s Encrypt is a service provided by the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG).

The key principles behind Let’s Encrypt are:

  • Free
    Anyone who owns a domain name can use Let’s Encrypt to obtain a trusted certificate at zero cost.
  • Automatic
    Software running on a web server can interact with Let’s Encrypt to painlessly obtain a certificate, securely configure it for use, and automatically take care of renewal.
  • Secure
    Let’s Encrypt will serve as a platform for advancing TLS security best practices, both on the CA side and by helping website operators properly secure their servers.
  • Transparent
    All certificates issued or revoked will be publicly recorded and available for anyone to inspect.
  • Open
    The automatic issuance and renewal protocol will be published as an open standard that others can adopt.
  • Cooperative
    Much like the underlying Internet protocols themselves, Let’s Encrypt is a joint effort to benefit the community, beyond the control of any one organization.

To take advantage of Let’s Encrypt, set up your hosting account or server properly. Let’s Encrypt offers short-term certificates that need to be renewed regularly in order to keep an HTTPS website operational.

HOW IT WORKS LINK

There are some substantial differences in the mode of operation between Let’s Encrypt and the other CAs. Following the first three points above, here are the main ones:

  • Free
    The Let’s Encrypt HTTPS certificates are completely free for the whole lifespan of your website.
  • Automatic
    The Let’s Encrypt HTTPS certificates are valid
    for 90 days
    , unlike regular HTTPS certificates, which are valid for one year. People are encouraged to automate their certificate renewal; for example, the administrator of the server would set up a dedicated software service (or would periodically invoke software from cron) to manage the initial domain validation and subsequent renewal for all hosted domains — set-it-and-forget-it style.
  • Secure
    Let’s Encrypt HTTPS certificates are issued with no compromise on security, leading to certain incompatibilities with older and more exotic platforms. Check the compatibility page to determine whether you are fine cutting off incompatible platforms.

LIMITATIONS LINK

Let’s Encrypt provides only DV certificates. OV and EV are not supported, and there are currently no plans to support them. Single- and multiple-domain HTTPS certificates are offered, but no wildcard ones at the moment. See the Let’s Encrypt FAQ for more information.

Let’s Encrypt’s automated mode of operation enforces some usage limits in order to protect the infrastructure from intentional and unintentional abuse. The rate limits are high enough not to affect regular users with even hundreds of domains. However, if you manage HTTPS certificates at a very large scale, you might want to check them out.

Older and exotic clients (prior to Windows XP SP3) are not supported. Check the compatibility page for details.

Using The Let’s Encrypt HTTPS Certificates In Practice Link

CPANEL LINK

  1. Log into your host’s cPanel
  2. Scroll down to the “Security” section, and click “Let’s Encrypt for cPanel.”
    cPanel Security section
    cPanel “Security” section (View large version)
  3. You are now in the “Let’s Encrypt for cPanel” section. Check both domain names (example.com and http://www.example.com), and click “Issue Multiple.”
    Check both domain names and click Issue Multiple
    Check both domain names and click “Issue Multiple.” (View large version)
  4. You will be taken to a confirmation screen. Your top-level (i.e. non-www) domain name will be selected as the primary, and your www domain name as an alias, which will be placed in the HTTPS certificate’s “Subject Alt Name” (SAN) record. Click “Issue” to continue. Please be patient and do not refresh the page, because the initial validation might take longer — about a minute or two.
    Click Issue and be patient for about a minute or two
    Click “Issue” and be patient for about a minute or two. (View large version)
  5. If the process completes successfully, you will see a confirmation message. Click “Go back” to see the installed HTTPS certificate.
    If the process completes successfully, you will see a confirmation message
    If the process completes successfully, you will see a confirmation message. (View large version)
  6. You will see your domain listed under “Your domains with Let’s Encrypt certificates.” You may check the certificate’s details and verify that the website opens with the https:// prefix in your browser.
    Your domain with Let's Encrypt certificates
    Your domains with Let’s Encrypt certificates (View large version)

LINUX, FREEBSD, OTHER LINK

The easiest way to set up Let’s Encrypt on your server is with Certbot. Just select your web server and operating system and follow the instructions.

Let's Encrypt certbot
Let’s Encrypt Certbot (View large version)

INTERNET INFORMATION SERVER ON WINDOWS LINK

There is currently no official client for IIS on Windows, but there are workarounds.

There are several projects to create a native Windows client for Let’s Encrypt:

  • ACMESharp (PowerShell) is the first effort to write a Windows client.
  • letsencrypt-win-simple (for the command line) seems the easiest to use.
  • Certify provides a GUI on top of ACMESharp, but is still in alpha.

Cloudflare Link

Cloudflare is a service that provides a content delivery network (CDN), website security, and protection against distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. It features a free HTTPS certificate with all subscription plans, including the free one — a shared DV Cloudflare Universal SSL certificate. In order to have a unique HTTPS certificate, you need to upgrade to the Business plan.

To take advantage, simply create an account, set up your website, and visit the “Crypto” section.

CertSimple Link

CertSimple is an EV-only HTTPS certificate vendor. It is disrupting the EV HTTPS certificate market in a way similar to what Let’s Encrypt is doing in the DV HTTPS certificate market, by providing a faster, easier process of organization validation — an otherwise slow and cumbersome routine. Here are its advantages:

  • Simplified application procedure
    No software to install or command line questions. Live validation, with most details checked before payment.
  • Fast validation time
    Three hours on average versus the industry standard 7 to 10 days.
  • Free reissues for the lifetime of the certificate
    Easily add domain names later or fix a lost private key.

You can read an excellent, in-depth review of the process on Troy Hunt’s blog.

Multiple HTTPS Websites On A Single IP Address Link

Due to the nature of the handshake process, virtual hosts with a single IP address are a problem for TLS. Virtual hosts work by having the client include the domain name as part of the HTTP request header, but when HTTPS is used, the TLS handshake happens before the HTTP headers are sent — the secure channel should be initialized and fully functional before transmitting any plain-text HTTP, including headers. So, the server does not know which HTTPS certificate to present up front to a connecting client, so it presents the first one it finds in its configuration file, which, of course, only works correctly for the first TLS-enabled website.

There are several workarounds: to have a unique IP for each TLS-enabled domain, or to have all domains in a single certificate. Both are impractical — the IPv4 address space is now used up, and having one big HTTPS certificate means that if you want to add a single website to this server, you’ll need to reissue the whole multiple-domain certificate.

An extension to the TLS protocol, named Server Name Indication (SNI), was introduced to overcome this limitation. Both servers and clients should support it, and although SNI support is nowadays widely available, it is still not 100% bulletproof, if compatibility with all possible clients is a requirement.

You can read more about running SNI for Apache, nginx and IIS (8+) in the respective documentation.

Useful Resources Link

Fonte: A Complete Guide To Switching From HTTP To HTTPS – Smashing Magazine

Stop paying for SSL Certificates

One of my most proud accomplishments of late is finally, after 7 years of web development, having one of my personal sites be secured with a valid SSL certificate. Now, this may not sound like such a big thing to some more seasoned developers, but to me, it’s kind of a big deal. My wife had to witness me have a nerdgasm afterward, as I tried to explain to her the significance of having an SSL certificate. Mainly it came down to having that satisfying little green lock with the word “Secure” next to it.

Now, anyone who has tried to get an SSL certificate in the past knows that they are a pain in the but to get. There are hundreds of providers and they can be expensive. Unfortunately, for those exact reasons SSL certificates aren’t usually seen as a priority for smaller sites such as personal blogs like this. Thankfully The Linux Foundation, as well as a myriad of other supporters, have come to the rescue in the form of Let’s Encrypt.

According to Let’s Encrypt’s website:

Let’s Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority (CA), run for the public’s benefit. It is a service provided by the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG).

What does this mean for us as developers? It simply means that securing your website isn’t just for the big boys anymore. Any developer with a little bit of terminal knowledge can generate and install their very own certificate and get that comforting little “Secure” emblem next to their website’s URL.

So, how do I get started?

Getting started with Let’s Encrypt is super fairly easy. First of all, you should know that my primary development machine right now is running Ubuntu. Yours might be different and that’s okay. The Certbot client works with almost all Unix-based operating systems. Those with Non-Unix systems, such as Windows running Microsoft IIS, aren’t completely out of luck, but my instructions here won’t help. You might try using something like ACMESharpinstead.

For Debian-based Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, the process is fairly straightforward. First, you’ll need to open a terminal window. For those that aren’t familiar with the terminal this can be daunting, but fear not! The terminal isn’t as scary as it first appears.

Paste the following commands into the terminal, making sure to respond yes to any prompts.

sudo apt-get install software-properties-common  
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot  
sudo apt-get update

After the update has finished, enter the following command. For this example I’m using nginx, if you’re using apache you should install python-certbot-apache instead.

sudo apt-get install python-certbot-nginx

Once the plugin is installed, run the following to generate a cert and automatically add it to your nginx configuration file.

certbot --nginx

It’s also possible to get a little more control when installing your certs. For instance, with this blog I used the --webroot flag to have a validation file placed into this site’s root in order for Let’s Encrypt to verify that this site is mine. The full command I used was:

certbot --webroot -w /var/www/my-blog -d blog.cwatsondev.com -d www.blog.cwatsondev.com

This installed both certs and then verified that my sites were where I said they were.

Finally, these certificates expire after 90 days, so you will need to renew them often. The easiest way to do that is to run the certbot renew --dry-run command. This creates a cron job that will auto-renew the certificate for you.

Congratulations! You now have an SSL certificate installed! All of the instructions above are also listed on the Certbot Website for a myriad of different distros.

This article is also available on my personal blog at https://blog.cwatsondev.com. Please check it out!

Edit: For people that are wondering about the “super fairly easy”, check out my blog. The original version has a strike through and that didn’t translate here.

Guide To Publishing A WordPress Plugin To The WP Directory

By the fall of 2004, WordPress had rolled out 46 plugins. Today, after thirteen years, the WordPress Plugin Directory features staggering 49,402+ plugins with over 1,191,468,914 downloads. This is how the WordPress Plugin Directory looks in April 2017:

WordPress plugin directory

WordPress Plugin Directory

The plugins which feature on the WordPress Plugin Directory are free to use and share. These WordPress plugins are licensed under the GPL (General Public License). It is an exclusive place where some of the amazing plugins have been rolled out. And if you want to be a part of this elite club, read along and know about the essentials of publishing a plugin.

In this post, you will have a complete tour of the process of submitting a plugin to the WordPress Plugin Directory. You will also have a step-by-step instruction manual on how to integrate your plugin to WordPress central Subversion repository on a Windows PC as well as on a Mac.

Why Publish Your WordPress Plugin?

There are many reasons to publish your WordPress plugins in the WordPress Directory. Some of the obvious examples are:

Basic Statistics

You can track down the total number of downloads and the active number of users to the precise metrics.

Feedback

Adding a plugin to the WP directory means getting instant feedback from the actual users in the form of comments. The feedback may be in the form of a bug report, suggestions to improve your plugin etc.

Revelation

The WordPress plugin directory is accessed by webmasters and enthusiasts daily. People log into the directory through their WP admin panels. So, the plugin gets a lot of exposure. You can easily attract new users and they may donate as well or buy the premium version.

Easy To Update

If you have launched a plugin through your website in the past, you would be well aware of the hectic scenario of notifying all the users about any updates. Adding the plugin to the WordPress Plugin directory enables you to address all the users with ease.

Authority

If your plugin is able to make it’s way to the official repository, the WordPress community will consider you as a credible developer. People generally prefer the plugins that are in the repository as compared to the ones on the third party websites.

The WordPress Plugin Submission Process

Here, we will discuss the nuts & bolts of submitting a WordPress plugin. The process has been broken down into easy to understand steps and relevant screenshots, making the plugin creation adventure seamless for beginners as well.

Follow The Plugin Guidelines

The easiest way to save yourself from the dilemma of wasting any time or efforts over plugin submission is by following the guidelines effectively. Ensure that the WordPress plugin development is compliant with all the guidelines before you forward it to the plugin directory.

WordPress Plugin Handbook

Some of the primary rules to be followed while submitting your plugin to the WordPress plugin directory include:

  • Ensure that your plugin is compatible with the GPL
  • The plugin should ask for a user consent before it stores any information
  • The plugin should not spam its users
  • The code syntax should clear and accessible
  • Should not perform any morally offensive practices
  • Should not embed external links on a public website

Confirm The Plugin Name From The Directory

Log in to wordpress.org/plugins and type in the desired name you wish to have for your plugin. Here’s a screenshot explaining the name search on the WordPress plugin directory.

Name of your WordPress plugin

If there is no plugin with the same name, it might be the case that a plugin might be available but the admin has not shared the initial Subversion commit. Hence, try to submit your plugin to the directory right away to ensure that you are able to register the name. If the plugin name has been taken, you will have to come with a different name.

Create A Robust Plugin

After you have created your plugin and tested it thoroughly, you need to update the code so that the functionalities of the plugin work in the desired way.

Audit The Readme File

The ReadMe file is used to fill out the directory page of the plugin. Here, you need to enter the following:

  1. Name of the plugin
  2. Authors of the plugin
  3. Donate link
  4. Tags
  5. Compatible WordPress versions
  6. License (GPL)
  7. Plugin description

For the plugin tags, it is advised to pick the tags similar to the ones used by similar plugins or the common and relevant ones. You can choose tags by checking out the readme.txt file of similar plugins or looking at the bottom of their page.
Once you have filled out the information, write the main description, steps of instructions, screenshots and frequently asked questions for your plugin. When it comes top adding the plugin screenshots, the more the better. You can also validate your readme file with the ReadMe Validator. The link for the validator can be found in the plugin approval email, which has been discussed later in this post.

Submit Your Plugin

After following the steps mentioned above, it is time to submit your plugin to WordPress for a manual review (plugin directories are analyzed manually).

You need to create a WordPress account first by filling out a registration form as below:

Register to WordPress

Now, it’s time to add your WordPress plugin.

Add your WordPress plugin

Enter the name and description for your WordPress plugin. For the URL, you will have to compress the plugin files. Upload the plugin.zip file to Google Drive and insert a public link to the zip file.

Wait For Approval

All plugin directories are analyzed manually. Although the response is quick, you might have to wait for a little before they get back to you.

It may take up to 8 hours before your plugin is reviewed and approved.

Plugin Approval Email

Once WordPress authenticates your plugin, you will get a confirmation email from them.

Store Plugin Files In The WordPress Subversion Repository

A subversion is a control tool that enables an admin to track all the tweaks made to a plugin and get back to the older versions of the plugin if required.

Since your plugin has been approved by WordPress, you need to copy it in your WordPress Subversion repository. The repository is the place where the plugin files will be stored. If someone needs a copy of your plugin, they can get it from the repository. Yet, only the admins who are authorized in the readme file can make any modifications to the repository.

There are two elementary methods by which you can store your plugin in the WordPress Subversion repository. First, it is for the Windows users and the second is for the ones using a Mac. Let us begin with the instructions or Windows.

On A Windows PC

If you want to publish your plugin on a Windows computer, you will have to download a compatible version of the Subversion client. The popular ones are:

  • Tortoise SVN: For Windows users with the GUI feature
  • SCPlugin: For Mac users with the GUI feature
  • Versions: Another option for Mac usersAmong all the Subversion clients available, the Tortoise SVN is a popular choice. Let us see the installation process for the Tortoise SVN:Once the download is complete, open the Setup Wizard as below.

Tortoise SVN
Click the Next button.

Tortoise SVN

Select the first option where it says to accept the Agreement and Conditions and click on Next.

Additionally, if you need the command line tools, select the command line client tools and go to:

‘Will be installed on the local hard drive.’

Tortoise SVN Installation

Click

Tortoise SVN Installation

Click on the Finish option to confirm the installation. Now that you are done with the installation, you are all set to work with Subversion (SVN). Open the Windows Explorer. Select the directory you want your WordPress SVN repository to be placed in. Now, select that directory and right click on the icon. This will open a window as below:

SVN Checkout

Click on the checkout drop down menu.

SVN Repository

Enter the repository URL into the field. Go to your approval email by WordPress where you can find that URL. This is generally in the format like:

https://plugins.svn.wordpress.org/plugin-name

Click on OK for confirmation.

Once you get the dialog box similar to the screenshot above, it is verified that the checkout was successful. Now, all of the WordPress central repository files and directories have been downloaded on your local computer and in the directory which you picked.

The directory that you chose should now hold assets, trunk, branches and tags directories. You need to add all of your plugin’s files to the newly added trunk directory. Then, you need to open up Windows Explorer, click on your SVN repository directory icon, and right click on that directory icon.

Select the SVN Commit option. The following screenshot displays how the different files are added and customized in your SVN repository. Remember, select only those checkboxes which you wish the repository to track. Preferably, select all the checkboxes so that all the plugin files are added to the central repository.

Click on OK. With this, the modified, as well as the newly added files will be available in the central WordPress SVN repository and your local computer. If you are using more than one computers, you should ensure that you run the SVN Update feature to collaborate your local repository with the central WP repository.

This can simply be done by using Windows Explorer to locate the SVN repository directory and selecting it. Right click on the directory icon and select SVN Update as shown:

Select the SVN Update option from the drop-down menu. As mentioned earlier, it will ensure that the copy is up to date as per the central WordPress repository.

On A Mac

On a Mac, the plugin is stored in the Subversion repository through the command line. Open the Terminal application. Locate the parent directory for your plugin.
Use cd ‘directory name’ to open a directory

  • Use cd .. to move to a parent directory.
  • Use the ls -a to list all of the files and directories.

When you access the parent directory, run the following command in the terminal window:

$ svn co https://plugins.svn.wordpress.org/name name

Here, svn denotes Subversion and co is for checkout.

This command adds all the central Subversion repository files into the local repository.

Important: Replace https://plugins.svn.wordpress.org/ with the URL that is provided in your plugin approval email by WordPress.

It should be in the format of:

https://plugins.svn.wordpress.org/plugin-name.

Replace the name of the directory at the end of the command with the name you wish to keep.

You will be asked for the following options:

(R)eject, accept (t)emporarily or accept (p)ermanently?

Type in ‘t’ or ‘p’ and enter. You will receive the message to confirm that the plugin directory has been created on your computer as well as the tags, trunk and branches are added in the Subversion repository directory.

Place all of your plugin files in the trunk directory. Now that you have your plugin files in the trunk directory, you need to add those files to your Subversion repository so that they can be tracked. You can do this by running the terminal command as mentioned below:

$ svn add trunk/*

You then need to push the changes made to your local repository to the central WordPress repository by running the following command in your terminal window.

$ svn ci -m Add first version of plugin

Now, you will be asked to provide your username and password for the WordPress account.

Once these credentials are entered and verified, the plugin files will be sent to the central repository. You will get a Transmitting File Data message, followed by a Committed revision message. This will be similar to the following:

Transmitting file data

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Committed revision 1204654

That’s it. You will soon get an email from WordPress which will let you know of the new commit.
If your plugin features multiple contributors or computers, it is mandatory to run the update command prior to committing any modifications.

$ svn up

This replicates the changes from the central WordPress repository to the local plugin repository.

Fonte: Guide To Publishing A WordPress Plugin To The WP Directory – PremiumCoding

Shortcuts And Tips For Improving Your Productivity With Sublime Text – Smashing Magazine

Sublime Text is, no doubt, one of the most powerful text editors out there. The number of satisfied users attests to that. If you explore it, you will eventually see how beautifully its powerful features are hidden behind a simple and elegant interface. If you have been using Sublime Text for some time, now is the time to upgrade your arsenal with new ammunition. I’ll be taking you through some of my favorite tips and tricks. Knowing them might just unleash your hidden powers as a programmer to the world.

Sublime Text Plugins Link

PACKAGE CONTROL LINK

Package Control is a one-stop solution for downloading and managing Sublime Text-related plugins and themes. The installation instructions are available on the Package Control website.

Once it is installed, you can access it using the command palette. To install a plugin, press Cmd ⌘ + Shift ⇧ + P (Mac) or Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + P(Windows and Linux), and then enter Install Package and press “Return.” The list of plugins in the repository takes a few moments to load, but then you can type the name of the plugin you are interested in and install it from there. Some of my favorite plugins are listed below.

Package Control.

Sublime Text’s default sidebar can only do some limited tasks. The Sidebar Enhancements plugin supercharges Sublime Text with commands for opening the file in a browser, copying, pasting, copying a path, duplicating, deleting and more.

Sidebar Enhancements.

PLAIN TASKS LINK

Plain Tasks converts Sublime Text into a powerful to-do list manager. You can install it via Package Control. Create a file with .todo as the extension to activate Plain Tasks on top of it. For other tips, you can access the tutorial provided in the plugin, available at “Preferences” → “Package Settings” → “Plain Tasks” → “Tutorial.”

For a new task:

  • Cmd ⌘ + Return ↵ (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Return ↵ (Windows and Linux)

To mark as done:

  • Cmd ⌘ + D (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + D (Windows and Linux)

To mark as cancelled:

  • Ctrl ⌃ + C (Mac)
  • Alt + C (Windows and Linux)
Plain Tasks.

SUBLIME LINTER LINK

Check for errors in your code using Sublime Linter. The plugin provides a framework for linting your code. The actual linting is done by various plugins (for Ruby, Python, JavaScript etc.), which means you need to install Sublime Linter first and then install syntax-specific linters for your code. Extensive documentation is available.

Sublime Linter.

EMMET LINK

Emmet, once known as Zen Coding, is an indispensable tool for any web developer. It is probably the most productive and time-saving plugin you’ll ever find.

Writing code takes time, and HTML grunt work such as writing tags and wrapping classes with quotes can be boring. Emmet takes care of all that. It magically expands abbreviations into a whole HTML or CSS structure. The syntax it uses for these abbreviations is inspired from CSS selectors. Let’s watch it in action.

Emmet.

SUBLIME TUTOR LINK

Sublime Tutor is an interactive in-editor tutorial for keyboard shortcuts in Sublime Text. If you have just started with Sublime Text, the plugin will instantly boost your productivity by teaching you nifty tips and tricks within the editor itself. The plugin uses the spaced repetition technique to make sure you remember the commands it teaches.

Sublime plugin: Sublime Tutor
Sublime Tutor.

Use Package Control to install the plugin. Once it is installed, you can access the tutor via the “Help” menu or the Ctrl ⌃ + Alt ⌥ + K keyboard shortcut.

Sublime Text Functions Link

GO TO ANYTHING LINK

This is probably the most powerful and most-used command in Sublime Text. Navigate through files, folders, symbols and lines with ease.

To go to a file:

  • Cmd ⌘ + P (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + P (Windows and Linux)

Press the keyboard shortcode, and start typing the name of a file. Sublime Text will perform a fuzzy search and fetch you the desired file instantly.

Go to a symbol:

  • Cmd ⌘ + R (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + R (Windows and Linux)

Go to a line:

  • Ctrl ⌃ + G (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + G (Windows and Linux)

To go to a specific line in a file, type a colon followed by the line number, or use the keyboard shortcode.

Go to anything.

WORD SELECTION LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + D (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + D (Windows and Linux)

Put your cursor on a word, press the keyboard shortcode, and the word will instantly be selected. If you press the same key combination again, Sublime Text will go into multi-selection mode and select other instances of the same word in the document. You can use this method to quickly add or replace text in all instances of a word.

Word selection.
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Cmd ⌘ + G (Mac)
  • Alt + F3 (Windows and Linux)

This is another way to achieve the same thing. Instead of incrementally searching for a word, it performs a bulk search of the word under the cursor and switches to multi-selection mode.

EXPAND SELECTION TO SCOPE LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Shift ⇧ + Space ␣ (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + Space ␣ (Windows and Linux)

This shortcut is extremely useful for JavaScript developers. It selects the current scope. Pressing the same key combination again selects its parent scope. The video makes clear how it works:

Expand selection to scope.

BREAK SELECTION INTO LINES LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Shift ⇧ + L (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + L (Windows and Linux)

Use this shortcut to break the selected area into multiple lines, putting Sublime Text in multi-selection mode. I use this trick to quickly convert a list of words into an enclosed array of strings.

Break selection into lines.

COLUMN SELECTION LINK

  • Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + Up ↑ / Down ↓ (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Alt + Up ↑ / Down ↓ (Win)
  • Alt + Shift ⇧ + Up ↑ / Down ↓ (Linux)

Use this shortcut to select a column in Sublime Text. Put your cursor anywhere in the document, and then press the shortcut to select columns upwards or downwards. This also takes you into multi-selection mode, like the two commands above.

Column selection.

SORT LINK

  • F5 (Mac)
  • F9 (Windows and Linux)

I like to keep my CSS properties sorted alphabetically. This command is extremely useful for that. Select the block that you need to be sorted (pro tip: use Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + J to select an indentation level), and then press the keyboard shortcode.

Sort.

TURN ON SPELLCHECK LINK

  • F6

No more getting disappointed by typographical errors after the code has made it to the review stage. Use this key to quickly toggle the spellchecker.

Turn on spellcheck.

COMMENT LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + / (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + / (Windows and Linux)

This is one of my most frequently used shortcut. Marking comments in any programming language is made simple with this shortcut. In an HTML file, it puts in a pair of <!-- --> tags, while in JavaScript it puts // at the beginning of a line.

Comment.

BUBBLE A LINE UP OR DOWN LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Ctrl ⌃ + Up ↑ / Down ↓ (Mac)
  • Shift ⇧ + Ctrl ⌃ Up ↑ / Down ↓ (Windows and Linux)

Want to move a snippet of code five lines up? Cutting and pasting is really old school. Use this keybinding to take the snippet wherever you’d like. Press the shortcut again to keep moving it further up or down.

Bubble a line up or down.

DUPLICATE SELECTION LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Shift ⇧ + D (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + D (Windows and Linux)

By default, this shortcut duplicates the current line and puts it on the next line. If you select a region and press this shortcut, it duplicates the whole region.

Duplicate selection.

JOIN TWO LINES LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + J (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + J (Windows and Linux)

This joins the following line to the current line, replacing all white space in between with a single space. Performed on a block of lines, this joins all of the lines together.

Join two lines.

GO TO MATCHING BRACKET LINK

  • Ctrl ⌃ + M

Use this command to move your cursor from one bracket position to another. This is especially useful when you get lost in a long method and want to reach its starting position (or vice versa).

Go to matching bracket.

CLOSE HTML TAG LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Opt ⌥ + . (Mac)
  • Alt + . (Windows and Linux)

Use this shortcut to close the currently open HTML tag. It inserts the matching closing tag at the current cursor location.

Close HTML tag.

FIND IN PROJECT LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Shift ⇧ + F (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + F (Windows and Linux)

This is the grep equivalent of Sublime Text. It finds a term within an entire project. The special thing about this command is that it is blazing fast. There are options to make it case-sensitive and to perform a regex match as well.

To search for a particular term in the current document, project-wide, put the cursor on that term and then press Ctrl ⌃ + E, which will put that term in the search box. Pressing the shortcode above populates the project-wide search box with this term.

Find in project.

SWITCH BETWEEN TABS LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Shift ⇧ + [ or ] (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Page Up ⇞ or Page Down ⇟ (Windows and Linux)

Just like in a web browser, you can open multiple tabs in Sublime Text. To move from one tab to another, you can use the shortcuts noted above, and use Cmd ⌘ + T (Mac) or Ctrl ⌃ + N (Windows and Linux) to create a new tab.

Switch between tabs.

COMMAND PALETTE LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Shift ⇧ + P (Mac)
  • Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + P (Windows and Linux)

As you become proficient with Sublime Text, you’ll want to access the menus less and less and instead be able to do everything with a few taps of the keyboard. With the command palette, you can quickly type a command, and Sublime Text will do a fuzzy match with an existing set of commands, letting you access the commands from a convenient place.

Here are some things you can try in the command palette — set the syntax of a newly created file, sort lines in the current document, and install a plugin using Package Control.

Command palette.

SHOW CONSOLE LINK

  • Ctrl ⌃ + `

Sublime Text comes with an embedded Python interpreter. It’s a handy tool to execute Python commands or to quickly test Sublime Text’s APIs when you’re developing a plugin for the editor.

Keep in mind that this interpreter comes bundled with Sublime Text, and it is different from your system-installed Python. The purpose of this console is to interact with Sublime Text’s API for plugins. You probably used this console when installing Package Control.

Show console.

To learn what can be done using Sublime Text’s plugin API, consult the documentation.

DISTRACTION-FREE MODE LINK

  • Cmd ⌘ + Ctrl ⌃ + Shift ⇧ + F (Mac)
  • Shift ⇧ + F11 (Windows and Linux)

For writers and others who need to be able to concentrate intently, Sublime Text has an even more minimalistic interface. Use the shortcut to toggle distraction-free mode on and off.

Distraction-free mode.

TEXT COMMAND-LINE HELPER LINK

Sublime Text includes a command-line tool that makes it super-easy to work with files on the command line. To get it working on a Mac, you need to make it available in your shell.

Assuming you’ve placed Sublime Text in the “Applications” folder and that you have a ~/bin directory in your path, you can run the following:

ln -s "/Applications/Sublime 
Text.app/Contents/SharedSupport/bin/subl" ~/bin/sublime
Text command-line helper.

To use it as the default editor for commands that prompt for input (such asgit commit), set the editor environment variable.

export EDITOR='sublime -w'

On Windows, you can use subl.exe in a similar way.

Conclusion Link

Sublime Text is full of such powerful shortcuts and commands. You probably won’t be able to remember these just by skimming this article; rather, you’ll need to practice as you’re going through it. List the most useful shortcuts for yourself, and refer to them regularly as you’re working with Sublime Text. Practice is the key. You are on your way to becoming a Sublime Text ninja.

Fonte: Shortcuts And Tips For Improving Your Productivity With Sublime Text – Smashing Magazine

Three Approaches To Adding Configurable Fields To Your WordPress Plugin

Anyone who has created a WordPress plugin understands the need to create configurable fields to modify how the plugin works. There are countless uses for configurable options in a plugin, and nearly as many ways to implement said options. You see, WordPress allows plugin authors to create their own markup within their settings pages. As a side effect, settings pages can vary greatly between plugins. In this article we are going to go over three common ways you can make your plugin configurable. We will start by creating a settings page and create our fields using the default WordPress Settings API. I will then walk you through how to set up your fields with a custom handler. Finally, I will show you how to integrate a great configurable fields plugin Advanced Custom Fields (ACF) into your own plugin.

Fonte: Three Approaches To Adding Configurable Fields To Your WordPress Plugin – Smashing Magazine